The Paper Chase – Applying for Ecuadorian Citizenship

At the risk of sounding like saps or even worse, fuddy-duddies, we have always tried to follow the correct paperwork procedures in each step of our lives overseas. When we applied for Visas, we collected all of the documents according to the Consular website and our Ecuadorian attorney’s advice, and took no shortcuts or “money-saving” steps. Maybe it is just coincidence that our Visas were ready for pickup at the DC Consulate’s office three weeks after filing, but I think following the rules had a lot to do with it.

When we shipped a container here, we blithely assumed that the people whose business was international shipping knew more than us on the subject, so again, we followed all of the rules and recommendations for packing, labeling and preparing a list of contents. Again, everything miraculously arrived without delay, no extra surcharge, no loss or breakage.

Likewise when we decided to get our Ecuadorian driver’s licenses. We ignored the helpful comments about “you don’t really need it”, “just tell the Trafico you don’t speak Spanish”, and the patently false “you can continue to use your US license”, and once again followed the published rules and regulations to apply. Of course, as often happens in Ecuador, the rules changed in the middle of the process, but we rolled with it, and managed to get legal permission to drive without any shortcuts or bribes.

So now we have embarked on the biggest Paper Chase of all in any foreign country – while we were in Quito this month we filed the initial paperwork to apply for Ecuadorian citizenship.

A few words about why we want citizenship are probably in order. After all , as permanent residents we have practically all of the same advantages as a citizen. We can even choose to vote if we like. The only things we cannot do as residents is run for office, or get an Ecuadorian passport, and as citizens we will have to file an income tax statement in Ecuador.

Now we have zero interest in running for public office, and since we have no Ecuadorian income, filing a tax statement is not a big deal. However, we are very interested in getting an Ecuadorian passport for several reasons.

  • We now have the time and opportunity to explore more of Central and South America. As US citizens, to enter some countries we would need to apply and pay for a Visa, or even pay an entry fee. As Ecuadorians, we can just show our passports – some countries even accept the cedula.
  • There are advantages to opening bank accounts with a foreign passport, and it seems like a good time to maybe have some funds that are unreachable by the US government. If ever there was a time for not having all of your eggs in one basket, it is now.
  • If any conflict should arise between the US and Ecuadorian governments (i.e. mean tweets), we would not be in a position where we would have to leave or lose our property or other assets.
  • Let’s face it – there are times and places where being identified as an American is not in your best interest. Sometimes it may be much better to show your Ecuadorian passport than your US passport.
  • Lastly, it just seems really cool to have two passports. Very James Bond-y.

We are not giving up our US citizenship, we will just have both. Frankly, right now the world seems to be in a place where having a “Plan B” isn’t enough. You need to be thinking about Plans C, D and possibly E. Having citizenship in two countries will just give us more options.

Also, the more we see of this country, the more we love it. Sure, there are problems here, it is certainly not paradise. But the beauty of the country and the friendliness of its people is something you have to be here and traveling about to really appreciate.

So much for the “why”, now on to the “how”. Let me start with the normal caveat – I am not saying this is how you should do it, or this is the only way. I fully understand that the rules can change at any time (in fact, they are in transition right now), and that the procedures can be different depending on where you file, when you file, and your personal circumstances as a resident. This is just what we have experienced, your experiences may (and probably will) vary.

The first paperwork hurdle to overcome, is that to qualify for citizenship, you need to show that you have not been outside of Ecuador for more than 90 days in the first three years of residency. This is one of those changes I mentioned. When we first arrived, it was no more than 90 days per year for the first three years. About halfway through our time here, it was decided that no, that was not the correct interpretation of the rules. That was fine for maintaining your residency, but if you wanted to be naturalized, it was less than 90 days total in three years.

So we went to La Libertad to get our Movimiento Migratorio statements to count up our days before we did anything else. We had calculated that we were out about 86 or 87 days, so we thought we were good. However, once we got the statements, we discovered that the Ministerio counts the day you left the country and  the day you returned as time away. This meant that we were in the system as having been away from Ecuador for 93 days.

Fearing we had lost the race without even leaving the starting gate, we contacted our attorney in Quito (Sebastian Cordero, an excellent attorney if you are in the market), emailed him a scan of the forms, and asked if he could get a ruling from the appropriate office before we started collecting the US documents we would need. After all, about 36 of those days were spent in the US packing to move here. Also, by this point we had been residents for over three years. If you counted from the date the form was generated back three years, we had only been out 57 days.

A few days later, Sebastian let us know that they said it should not be a problem, they are more interested in a pattern of behavior rather than the exact number of days. He did warn us that the office also admitted that as the paperwork progressed through the system, it was possible someone higher up could raise an objection. Sebastian’s interpretation was that it would give them a legal “out” to deny us if they saw something shady in our background.

On the strength of this firm maybe, we went ahead and collected all of the paperwork we would need while visiting the US in March. Here are the US documents we needed. First, what we already had from our residency process that we could still use:

  • Birth Certificates
  • Marriage Certificate
  • For me, death certificate from my first wife; for Rita, death certificate for the first, divorce decree for the second

Then there were documents that were time sensitive, so we needed new ones:

  • FBI reports
  • WV State Police reports
  • Rita’s Social Security payment verification
  • My pension plan payment verification
  • School transcripts to verify education level (this one is not time-sensitive, but we needed them so our new cedulas won’t list our education level as “inicial”

Of course, all of these documents had to be notarized and apostilled (stamped by the Secretary of State of the state or country, depending on the type of document). This took a large part of the time we spent in the US, in fact we had to extend our stay almost a week to get everything done. Once we returned, Sebastian took care of getting certified and notarized translations into Spanish.

We were not done yet. Now we needed to collect the Ecuadorian documents required. According to the Consulate website, which had changed since we first started, we now only needed:

  • New Movimiento Migratorios
  • Certificados Bancarios (statements from the bank that we had an Ecuadorian bank account, and for how long)
  • Copies of cedula
  • Copies of Passport and Visa

So with our pile of documents in hand, we met Sebastian in Quito and headed out to file our papers. And ran into the first snag. This is typically Ecuadorian – the new law was indeed in place making the procedure easier. However, the rules for how to interpret that law have not been decided upon yet. Therefore, they are still requesting you file a document package that includes some documents that may or may not be needed now. We were given a list of what we needed, and started our version of the Ecuadorian Scavenger Hunt.

Through it all, Sebastian commented on how calmly we were taking everything. We told him we had lived in Ecuador long enough to recognize the “Rule of Three”. We have found that it takes at least three visits to get anything official done with the government or utility companies. The first visit, you do not have the correct paperwork (as just happened). The second visit, either the computer system is down, or the person who does that is not in today. The third visit, you will probably succeed.

There is also the “reverse-reciprocity-copy corollary” to this rule: If you have copies of your cedula, they are not needed. If you do not have any, you need three.

We’ve found that these rules help you to get by here without aggravation and frustration. If we get something done in two visits, it is a victory. One visit, and it is a freakin’ miracle to be celebrated.

So we calmly accepted the new rules, and went about collecting the following:

  • A statement from IESS (social security, health insurance, etc.) stating we did not owe them any money
  • A similar statement from SRI (income and sales tax)
  • A statement from the municipio that our property taxes were current
  • A report from the Ecuadorian police
  • A copy of the first few pages of our escritorio (deed for our condo)
  • A printout of the last three months transactions from our Ecuadorian bank account
  • A printout from the Registro showing basically the same information that is already on our cedulas, plus fingerprints

By the time we had everything, the Naturalization office was closed, so we arranged to try again the next morning. We told Sebastian that we fully understood if we got a different clerk, they would likely look everything over and say “you don’t need all this stuff”, but we were prepared. We did get the same clerk however, and she looked over everything carefully and agreed that we had everything – except now she also wanted three passport sized photos. Since they take your photo digitally for the new cedula, I can only assume it was for her personal collection.

Anyway, Rule of Three baby, so we calmly went outside to get the photos while she organized and examined everything. Fortunately, around government offices there are always places to get copies and photos, so we were back 15 minutes later with what we hoped would be the final requirement.

She accepted the photos, and went down a checklist with each of us verifying the papers provided, confirmed we did not have anything like child support payments, and added a cover page with colorful stamps and widgets to each of our folders. We paid our $50 each for the filing fee and she pronounced us done with the first step. We were prepared for a personal interview (en español) about why we wanted to be citizens, but either she felt like all of the discussion over the past two days was enough, or we will get asked to do so at a later date. This is one of those things that seem to vary with where you apply. For now, she just confirmed that we had everything required, and that the paperwork packets would be sent on through the system as the process now officially begins.

She also asked for a thumbdrive, and gave us copies of three study aids for the written test. One was a list of things to study, with hyperlinks to websites with more information, one was a pdf file with some “facts in brief” about Ecuador and Ecuadorian culture, and the last was a 200+ page Word document that covers history, geography, culture, and the national anthem.

Now we wait. And study. At some point, probably 4-6 months from now, we should be contacted to come in and take the written test. This will be 30 questions pulled from the material we were given to study, and of course will also be en español. We have two friends who have passed the test. One failed on the first attempt, but they were happy to print out a new one for him the same day to try again. He told me he got the impression if he had failed the second one too, they would have helped him with the third. Hopefully, we won’t have to find out.

So what else? Well, information varies. We know at some point we have to run ads in three or four newspapers stating we have applied for citizenship and inviting any objections. Eventually, we will have to pay $750 each if we are accepted. At some point after we are approved, we go to a swearing-in ceremony, and sing the national anthem along with everyone else there that day. Then we get our new cedulas (same cedula number, thank goodness) that identify us as Ecuatorianos, and from there getting a passport is very simple.

“Cautiously optimistic” best describes our moods right now. We have a ton of material to study, and there are no guarantees, but we are enjoying working on our Spanish and studying more about the history and culture of Ecuador. Hopefully by the end of the year, we will be able to proudly say “Somos Ecuatorianos!

UPDATE July 2, 2017 – I have been asked by several people about the study guides that we received. Below are links to them. Understand that I make no claims or assertions that these will prepare you 100% for the written test – this is just what we have. There’s no substitute for reading books about Ecuadorian history and culture, and even better, actually travelling around the country to learn about it first-hand.

CULTURA GENERAL DEL ECUADOR – This pdf file has general facts, and a color guide to the parts of the Ecuador flag, map of the provinces, etc.

TEMARIO PARA EXAMEN DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE LA NACIONALIDAD ECUATORIANA – This Word document is a general list of what you should know before taking the test. Contains hyperlinks to Wiki articles, further information. Clicking on the link will download it.

Ecuador datos generales para estudiar – This large Word document starts with the chorus and first verse of the national anthem, some basic facts, and then a lot of information about the history and culture. Also many hyperlinks to additional information. This link will also download the document.

Test-Study – This is a list of sample questions, in theory the bank from which your 30 questions will be drawn. I have no assurance that this is all of them, however. Most answers are highlighted, some fill-in-the-blank questions you will have to look up for yourself.

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  • Valerie says:

    Thank you Jim for a very informative post. I plan to apply for EC citizenship early next year. Hopefully, I may escape the Rule of 3 if I follow through carefully on your guidelines. I have tried searching online without any success, so far, to get the study material for the test. Would you be willing to share that information with me? Thank you!

    • Jim Santos says:

      Hi Valerie – due to popular demand, I have just updated the post to add links to the study information we were able to collect. If you go back and refresh, you should see the four links at the bottom of the article.

      Good luck!

  • Hi Jim,
    Thank you for your detailed post and for adding links to the study guides. My husband and I will be applying soon and these will help us tremendously.

  • Valerie says:

    Hi Jim,
    You listed school transcripts to verify education as being time sensitive. Could you please confirm if that is correct? Thank you.

  • Valerie says:

    Thank you Jim for the confirmation.

  • Ellen L says:

    Hello, I read your article today. I am curious as to know where you applied and how long it took them to call you for the interview/test? That is great that they helped you with the study guides. I live in Loja, and applied at the office in Azogues; no study guides given, rude, and horrible service. I wish I would have applied at the office in Machala, as I had better experiences with them in the past when applying for various visas. Communication with Azogues office has been impossible and even in person they often do not want to help. I had to beg to let the naturalizationes department see me and I have heard that they like to say the department “no esta atendiendo hoy” at the drop of the hat. I am still waiting for the call or email to schedule my interview/test. Fingers crossed!

    • Jim Santos says:

      Hi Ellen,

      We applied in the Quito office, and yes, we found them to be very polite and helpful. However, it has been almost a year now and we still have not been called back in for our test. The problem we are told was that when the immigration laws changed two years ago, they held up on processing requests. Our attorney tells us that they have started again, but are working on applications filed in 2011. Worse, I was just told from another source that they have decided they need to update the test, and no one knows how long that will take.

      • Ellen L says:

        Hi Jim,

        Thank you for your quick reply. I can imagine that the service is better in larger cities, as I’m sure the institutions are under closer observation, especially the capital. That sounds like really bad news from your attorney; I am not surprised though. Thanks again for the update and hopefully our cases will be approved sooner than later!

  • Alicia says:

    Thanks Jim for the information and study guides! I applied by myself for citizenship and turned in my final paperwork in March 2018 at Azogues, had my interview in April, and took the test in May! The exam now requires that you get 27 out of 30 right (I passed, thanks to your helpful links). Again, thank you for helping so many expats.

    • Jim Santos says:

      Wow, that’s great! It’s been almost a year, and we still have not been called in for our tests.

    • Ellen L says:

      You are so lucky Alicia! I also turned in my paperwork in March at the Azogues office (towards the end of March), but I haven’t heard anything from them so far. Here in Loja, they told me that I should have already received a call for the interview/test and that they tried to communicate with the Azogues office for me but without any luck. Did you get a phone call or an email from the ministry? And did the test mainly include questions from the document of sample questions Jim provided? Just curious :). Thanks

      • Alicia says:

        I just got an email before each appointment, never a phone call. Azogues warned me that if I missed my email, I would have to restart the entire process (they wouldn’t just reschedule my date). So I made sure to check my mail and spam daily. I think Jim is right that my process is fast, as I am under an Amparo Visa (my son is Ecuadorian), so I think they do expedite family members. Best of Luck and study Jim’s question bank!

    • Grorge says:

      Good night after you passed the exam successfully, for how long you had been waiting untill you had got the nationality.
      I have passed the exam as well and still waiting the notification .

      • ALICIA ERICKSON says:

        I passed my exam in April 2018 and my interview in May 2018. My paperwork is currently on the top of the pile and being reviewed right now. They just asked me for additional financial records in Aug. 2019. I’m hopeful I will hear final decision soon. Best wishes.

  • Iskender says:

    First of all thanks a lot for this incredible blog! I will take the exam next month and studying a lot 🙁 just letting you know ” nacionalidad Ecuatoriana” link doesn’t work.. do you have a chance to fix it? Thanks in advance

    • Jim Santos says:

      Thanks – I did just check the links, and they all still work. The first and last links open in your browser, because they are in the pdf format. The middle two are Word docs. When you click the link, they download automatically. Check you “Downloads” folder, or look at the bottom of your browser for the files.

  • Diana Coryat says:

    Hi, this blog is so helpful. Thank you! I am hoping to apply soon. Do you know what the changes are now that the new migration law has a normativa as of February 2018?
    Thanks again!

    • Jim Santos says:

      Thanks for your kind words.

      Right now, the main changes to immigration are that it is a two-step process to get residency. You have to get a two-year temporary visa first, then after 18 months you can apply for full residency. You also are now required to show proof of insurance to get your visa. The rule for tourist showing proof of insurance still has not been implemented – and most attorneys I have talked to do not believe it ever will go into effect.

      As for citizenship, they are in the process of updating the written test. Processing has really bogged down as well. We still have not been called in for our test, and we know people who have completed everything except the swearing in, and have still been waiting over a year.

      • Diana Coryat says:

        Yes, I hear this also, that the process is very slow. Best of luck to you. I have signed up for your blog so keep us posted!

  • olgun says:

    Hi Jim,

    excellent job my friend! I study from your test questions and passed the exam with 0 false. Thank you so much.

    for the people who will take that exam: just study the test – study part, that will be enough.

  • Amy Frevert says:

    So I’m curious, did you ever get your appointment for your interview?

  • Donald MacQuoid says:

    Hola amigos!
    We have been notified of our interview Feb 22, and then the test the following month.

    Could anyone please let me know about the interview questions…not the test at this point.

    Our spanish is intermediate but with a hint of what might be asked or discussed the process will be sooooooo much easier.

    Muchas gracias

  • Susannah Fox says:

    Hi Jim, wanted to give my thanks for your study questions, and overall support.

    I took the test in July 2018, and will be a legal Ecuadorian citizen as of 12/18/19!

    Thanks also to the, and Elizabeth the administrator there.



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